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Corona Virus : So How Clever Have we Been?

Post CoVid Review


Kinkajou Kinkajou:  So what is the report card for humanity’s management of the CoVid crisis?


Erasmus Erasmus : Not really good I would say. Human beings function in an iterative capacity. That means they make a decision, look at the consequences of that decision and then change what is being done to achieve a better outcome and minimise the problems with the initial decision.
Kinkajou Kinkajou: So I would say that we really have learned a lot - having made a lot of mistakes on the way. We have seen the consequences of decision after decision and lurched backwards and forwards trying to make the best of difficult situations.

Oops Mistake

Erasmus Erasmus : The problems we have seen include:
* New CoVid variants-initially mono- genic mutations but as has been seen with the Delta and Omicron variants the progressive development of multi-gene mutations in partially immunised populations.
* Flagging vaccine immunity requiring repeat booster doses.
* Losing track of what we are trying to achieve. Prevent all infection vs. minimise the impact on the hospital system and intensive care. You almost need to make decision makers write down what they are doing, why they are doing it and what they hope to achieve.

Losing Track
* The failure of natural immunity to create substantial or long-term protection. Weird Hey?
* Vaccine distribution problems with a substantial failure of vaccination in the Third World (poorer nations).

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : Actual Vaccine delivery in Australia via the  government administered distribution program  has been a disaster, a fact seen and appreciated by very few. In mandating fortnightly or greater vaccine delivery times to frontline workers such as in general practice ,the government may have saved some money in distribution but resulted in hundreds of thousands of dollars of vaccine wastage.


Dr AXxxxx Dr AXxxxx : The Australian General in charge of the program may best be described as a rigid blockhead for the creation of some of the vaccination protocols in place. All too often in small country areas – if the vaccine was not used in a recognised vaccination hub in a given time (for example due to poor turnout), the vaccines were dumped and destroyed at a substantial cost.  Vaccines were delivered late, not on time or not at all- or  have sat in central warehouses for too long then were  delivered to practices with a life span pre expiry of often 24 hours. General Practices often resorted to swapping vaccines between colleagues in an effort to keep the program rolling.

General In Charge
Dr AXxxxx Dr AXxxxx : Many are not even aware of the unusual costs generated in the distribution of vaccines to country areas and to aboriginal communities. Very Unusual!

Kinkajou Kinkajou: Other Issues in Our CoVid Management?

Erasmus Erasmus : * Vaccination distrust issues, (many citizens distrusting the advice given by their government,  or by manufacturers – re-safety.
Erasmus Erasmus : * Social issues – seeing the effect of isolation on young adults who face career delays and delays in finding a partner in life.
Dr AXxxxx Dr AXxxxx : * Politics and economics in vaccination: in Australia seeing the downgrading of  the very effective AstraZeneca vaccine in favour of mRNA vaccines with a host of unusual side-effects that are poorly reported to the community and with immunity “fade” issues. It has been reported by many citizens that big business shareholdings in big vaccine producing facilities are responsible for many of these decisions and the ongoing underreporting of side-effects.  Support the right vaccine and big profits will flow.
(I think you would have to take a leaf out of one of the “Alien” movies. “At least the monsters won’t do each other in for a percentage”).

Money and Vaccination
Erasmus Erasmus : * Economic damage resulting from printing money to finance CoVid management/assistance strategies- now triggering worldwide inflation (starting in the US).
Further economic damage from a loss of ability to trans-ship goods.
The world economy over the last few decades has become increasingly focused on efficiency with single factories often producing the supply of a product for the entire world. CoVid era product issues include such goods as – printers, computer monitors, CPU chips for  cars/phones , food, the movement of labour especially of skilled labour. Most importantly , component shortages freeze up whole supply chains.

 In some poor communities the loss of the ability to export goods (labour) has meant the loss of livelihood to substantial portions of the population in the Third World. Student education has also been affected as students have been limited in their ability to travel to specialty providers of education (such as in Australia). Another flagrant example is the wholesale destruction of the airline industry which requires a volume of passengers to function and as a side issue, air travel supports the air freighting of goods throughout the world.

Erasmus Erasmus : * Lack of consideration of Safety Issues. (I think the anti-vaxers do present some very good issues). There are also issues that have not reared their heads and which are a direct consequences of the decisions we have made. It is quite possible that we could de-populate the planet (the Western world and richer nations anyway), in about 20 years by the use of compulsory vaccination programs for which we have we have not anticipated very long term effects. (Censored).

Vaccine Safety
Erasmus Erasmus : * Failed communication issues. I think our language it is not appropriate to describe and understand many vaccine and virus issues. The difference between colonisation and infection is not well encapsulated by the words we use –and  I think in any language in the world. And this basic description is essential in understanding the effect of our vaccination programs. We hear such complaints as – they have been double vaccinated and they can still catch the infection. So the vaccine is of no use. Our words of descriptions create understanding/ misunderstanding issues.
* Government control. The actions of government are tantamount to having an imbecile elephant in the room. The only problem is they are in charge.

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx :  In Australia we saw the government in the early stages seize gloves and protective equipment and then hold these within the central pool, not distributing them to the front line workers. Most general practices in Australia were unable to buy gloves as the government had seized them all - Australia wide. The shortage persisted for a long time distorting the price of gloves and other protective equipment for many non-government frontline workers.


Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx :  In Australia, we then see the government mandating against the use of medications with some proven effect in overseas studies – notably ivermectin. (My personal belief is that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are only suitable for end-stage infections as “cytokine storm” mediators). We also see a government acquiring pools of antivirals and then not using any of these – except perhaps in extreme cases. It should be fairly obvious that where there is a partially effective drug inhibiting viral growth, its maximum effect will be at an “early” stage-  not in terminally ill ICU patients. (E.g. remdesivir.) Many doctors look at research on treatment outcomes without any idea of this concept.

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : Next, another new anti-viral has been acquired by the government and released to nobody. The medication is retained in the “government central pool” to prevent deaths. No mention of morbidity and the effects of illness here. No concept that medicines can make people “weller” in the long term with less illness related scarring and damage, especially if used early to modify an illness.

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx :  All CoVid patients have been mandated to be admitted to hospital – were obviously they can receive the best of treatment – namely ibuprofen and paracetamol in Queensland Australia. This denies patients any chance of modifying the course of their illness with simple medication such as Betadine, zinc supplements and antibacterial antibiotics.  Do these have any proven effect? To be decided, but I am pretty sure that Paracetamol and ibuprofen don’t modify disease progress, (apart from perhaps having people whinge less before they die).

Mandating Action : No Choice

Dr AXxxxx Dr AXxxxx : We have seen the government and its professional advisers alter their advice on which vaccination and when to have them: AZ versus mRNA vaccines, no boosters versus 6/5/4/3 month booster intervals, only AZ for older patients, avoid AZ for patients with clotting problems . They must know Best!


Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : The government is definitely responsible for the slow and costly implementation of the vaccination program. The requirement of an active call-up program which refused to vaccinate anybody turning up early and an extensive consent process creating admin costs has resulted in a  program whereby vaccinators are able to process about four-six  vaccinees per hour per Vaccine program person – when a much simplified administration program could probably have processed 50 vaccinees per hour per admin person. I do not think there is any evidence that a single life has been saved by the consent process or by making people wait post-vaccination to assess the development of side-effects.

Kinkajou Kinkajou: So what should we have done?

Erasmus Erasmus : Looking back I think perhaps the most obvious and effective solution for entire problem may well have been biological control rather than vaccination. Gene sequencing the virus, knocking out virulence factors with the creation of an inept but immune stimulating viral CoVid variant may well have given us a much better early management of the viral outbreak.

Biological control : Not New

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : The big issue with the CoVid virus is that it killed one in 50 of the people who caught it and probably created respiratory (lung) damage in a similar fraction. Now remember that one in 1000 people die every month. So if the virulence factors of the virus are substantially reduced and a complication mitigation strategy  were attached to the administration of an active biological virus (living vaccine), I can see no reason why a risk profile of one in 2000  could not be achieved.

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : This would be substantially better than the risk profile of a flu epidemic. I think the screening for basic immune risk factors such as B12/Folate/zinc deficiency or the presence of gluten sensitivity as well as basic medical risk factors for poor immunity could well even reduce the risks of an active agent immunisation program to less than one in 6000.
It’s not the decision we made. Looking back perhaps biological control could have been a much better decision especially considering the emergence of viral mutations.

Dr AXxxxx Dr AXxxxx : I think we are actually very lucky that CoVid is substantially less likely to mutate than many other viruses. It has mechanisms in place to minimise the mutation of its mRNA program to about a 10th of that of many other RNA viruses.
We could well have seen our entire vaccination program fall apart had 10 times as many viral variants emerged than those of which we are currently aware. Imagine 10 Delta or 10 Omicron like viruses and then 10 times as many downstream progeny – all escaping our narrow spectrum vaccination control measures..

Erasmus Erasmus : I have always had a lot of reservations about narrow spectrum vaccination measures. We have seen that in our current program, artificial vaccination gives much better immunity than natural vaccination by infection. Natural immunity does seem to wane much more so than artificially vaccinated immunity. However by their very nature, narrow spectrum vaccines are susceptible to being bypassed by mutation – especially when the population of the planet (7 billion) serves as the viral reservoir. It would appear that our speed in developing vaccine variance has been much less than we have anticipated and our ability to roll out these changes is much less than we have anticipated. Mutations have occurred much more frequently than we have anticipated.(Though luckily for us, much less than may have been possible had CoVid had the structure of an Influenza RNA virus). 

Kinkajou Kinkajou: And vaccination has failed to cover substantial populations around the planet – especially in the Third World. We believe this has enabled chronic widespread endemic infection in the unvaccinated and more highly immune-compromised third world communities.
Narrow spectrum vaccination is a godsend for big Pharma. It guarantees that you can produce a different vaccine every year and sell it to a captive audience. Ideal for big profits. Not very ideal for people trying to go about their lives.

Narrow Spectrum

Kinkajou Kinkajou: What else would you suggest as key essential innovations for our management of CoVid – 19?


Excerpt: “Failed communication issues. I think our language it is not appropriate to describe and understand many vaccine and virus issues. The difference between colonisation and infection is not well encapsulated by the words we use – I think in any language in the world. And this basic description is essential in understanding the effect of our vaccination programs. We hear such complaints as – they have been double vaccinated and they can still catch the infection. So the vaccine is of no use”.


Erasmus Erasmus : We critically need words to appropriately describe the infection. If we can describe the infection at its different stages of growth – then we can measure its progress. It is only by measuring that we can truly understand the effectiveness of our interventions. We have broached this issue in a lot of our sites , especially “Climate Change”. The first task of initiating change - is to measure factors that underpin the change.
Erasmus Erasmus : I would propose a key new description being EPSIC: short for - epithelial surface infective colonisation. I would suggest that the key factor differentiating an active out-of-control infection and an infective colonisation being the degree of disruption of the epithelial surface of for example pharyngeal surfaces. The more disrupted the pharyngeal surface is – the more likely the CoVid infection is to be more severe. This means we need new methods assess the epithelial surface.

Bad Throat


Erasmus Erasmus : New Words: EPSIC
Depth of Epithelial disruption: superficial (Supdisrupt), vascular involvement (bvasc)
Epithelial Surface Colony Density: Epcolden
%breakdownSquamousEpithelia: Percensq
%breakdownColumnarEpithelia: Percencol
Day of Infection: a standardised scale of infection progress description: e.g. Day1Nose, Day2Throat, Day3Chest could well be useful in assessing effectiveness of interventions. A diagnosis for Treatment Assessment measurement needs to work out how much more effective treatments are at differing stages of infection. Similarly it is likely that germ exposure dose has a significant impact on illness development velocity and on the intensity/ severity of the final illness. Hence likely to be a critical factor to measure to get meaningful assessment of interventions.

 

Erasmus Erasmus :A Simple Scoring System for illness severity would also enable protocols to develop for second stage interventions. If blood markers such us C3 C4 , IFN or ESR could be recruited , this would be indeed awesome- introducing the objective to the world of subjective assessment. There is no purpose in intervening when a good outcome is likely. However, patients who are likely to have poor outcomes need to be identified early so that second stage intervention measures can be instituted – whether they be antibiotics/benzene/zinc or specific anti-viral medications or odd treatments such as ivermectin.
If you cannot measure it, you are working in the dark as to what you are doing and how effective it will be.


Kinkajou Kinkajou: Surely an infection is an infection.
Erasmus Erasmus : Well yes and no. In the case of whooping cough, almost everyone is vaccinated. However in any group of people, a small percentage of those people will be throat carriers of Bordetella pertussis – the active agent in the causation of whooping cough. However although these people carry the germ, they are certainly not affected by it. They are however capable of transmitting it.


The differentiation between infection and colonisation is relatively easier with bacteria than it is with viruses. It can be seen that bacteria can sit on top of the tissues of the throat/pharynx without breaking into the body. A virus needs a human cell to allow it to grow. So by definition every viral colonisation of a throat is actually an infection of a throat.

Colonisation
No one would argue that vaccination is whooping cough is a waste of time. However the same roughly parallel situation with viral colonisation is just not described by the words we have in our language today – so we cannot really appreciate what is going on , as we don’t have the words available for us to use to describe the situation.
Yes I can see at a more basic level – if we did not have a word such as “love” in our language, how can we say that we love someone?
Exactly.

Kinkajou Kinkajou: Other Innovations: I would suggest nothing too complex.
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : Well perhaps something as simple as spraying the throat with a dye such as “Rose Bengal ” or similar which attaches to devitalised or damaged/exposed tissues. (Tissues with a disrupted epithelial surface). Flash photography could easily generate a high-resolution image which can be computer scored based on the extent and depth of dyeing. Rose Bengal may well not be the dye that we want, but this is the type of agent which will allow an assessment to be made of the degree of infective versus colonisation disruption of an infected patient. It is absolutely essential to have a measure of the extent of infections to assess the effects of various medical interventions and their effectiveness in offering the course of natural CoVid infection. Interventions would include vaccines but also medical interventions as well. Perhaps even multiple markers for different “states” of infection combined with fluorescent markers may be possible.

Kinkajou Kinkajou: A lot is made of the failure of the vaccines to prevent throat infections in the vaccinated. What is your take on this old dog?
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx :  Probably the most obvious thing to consider is that the throat is outside of the body. The immune system resides on the other side of the epithelial surface inside the body. It is only with difficulty that the body’s T cells and their chemical signalling agents are able to penetrate through from inside the body to the epithelial surface. So anything which sits on the body, is technically not subjected to the body’s immunity. The body will have difficulty directing immunity against it. This is why so many bacteria live on the surface of the human body. They only become problematic when the epithelial integrity breaks allowing the invasion of bacteria into the tissues of the body – initiating the process of “infection”.


Kinkajou Kinkajou: How reliable would our measurements of EPSIC    status likely to be?                     
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx :  Another obvious problem is change. We are not measuring a static event – infection or colonisation. We are measuring a changing event. This means that multiple measurements may need to be taken to ascertain the course of infection. These may then be used to create other descriptive markers of the infective process such as “infection velocity”.


“Infection velocity” is indeed an interesting concept. The tying together of the development of a pattern of over time may also give us an idea of infection velocity and identify patients who require early or more urgent intervention. All too often the medical media focuses on the symptoms of the infection. These are all lumped together in one big bundle. This may be an appropriate package for a primary care doctor seeing many different infections at many different stages. However it misses some of the value of history in that there is likely to be a definite progression of symptoms and a specific pattern. It is this pattern infection which is perhaps more distinctive of CoVid then is the simple bundle of symptoms which are often really lumped in the description of the CoVid syndrome.


Kinkajou Kinkajou: What is your comment on safety issues?
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx :  If the CoVid virus was actually the Zombie Apocalypse Virus, it is obvious that the protective measures that we have espoused so ardently are ineffectual. Hand washing, cleaning, mask wearing and social distancing are all measures that “slow” infections rather than really stop them from spreading. Legions of doctors and nurses and medical staff have been affected while wearing protective equipment.


P 95 masks are described as filtering almost all airborne infective particles. The problem of course is that is almost impossible to breathe through a 1 µm filtering membrane. Remember you need to shift a proximally 5 L of air per minute, using effectively very low pressures. Breathing through a P 95 mask works because air leaks in around the edges bypassing the filtration mechanisms.


If you’re really serious about preventing infections, you need full facial sealing masks with positive pressure at the face generated from “filtered” air. This requires a powered pump - not just a set of lungs.  When you see medical staff working in the community – such as in the sun in Australia, it also becomes patently obvious that temperature control is essential to enable staff to be able to effectively work with this equipment.


Battery-powered air-conditioners are possible and may need to be a more commonly available device for infection control. The same battery power source will enable air to be effectively filtered through a 1 µm or submicron membrane effectively. Anything else that we may be doing is only effectively kidding ourselves that it may be effective at infection control. Without this level of protection all we are achieving is an infection occurring a bit later rather than sooner, and maybe with a few less germs in the initiating infection event. Maybe a bit less severe with reduced exposure dose, hopefully. Not much use in the Zombie Apocalypse though.

Erasmus Erasmus : Excerpt:” New CoVid variants-initially mono- genic mutations but as has been seen with the Delta and Omicron variants the progressive development of multi-gene mutations in partially immunised populations.”

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : To replicate, CoVid requires an RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Our understanding of the function of RNA as a template for polymerase suggests that RNA is much more prone to undergo mutation than is DNA. This suggests that in replicating, there will be a relatively high mutation rate in the replicated RNA.

Influenza Protection


This strategy is very useful for viruses such as influenza. A high mutation rate guarantees continual development of new variants that escaped the immune system. However such a strategy is more suited for “simple” viruses. In a complex virus, (such as CoVid) mutations in different parts of the RNA genome could in rapid order make the virus degrade as proteins lose their functions when they fail to be coded correctly. The virus would rapidly lose its ability to infect and spread as it is critical virulence factors mutate.
CoVid has developed an RNA polymerase with very “high fidelity” to bypass this problem. This guarantees a lower mutation rate. This makes vaccination a much more effective strategy for CoVid than vaccination is for other viruses such as influenza. So, if we make a vaccine for CoVid, it is likely to stay useful for longer.


However as we have seen with the Delta and the Omicron variants, big chunky messy multi-genic mutations do occur. I think we have been very fortunate that the new mutations have not escaped the vaccine immunity. Our vaccines are still effective – more so if they are repeated or “boosted”.


Erasmus Erasmus : I personally believe that narrow spectrum vaccination is always a strategic error. It is always better to vaccinate against multiple antigens. “Broad-spectrum vaccines” would decrease the likelihood that mutations will inactivate the vaccine.
Look at the Prime example: the influenza vaccine: after 30 years of actively vaccinating, the disease is still going strong with no inkling of a long term solution in sight.

Kinkajou Kinkajou: The next issue to consider here is the complaint by anti—vaxers that the vaccine will integrate with the body’s DNA. There are a couple of mechanisms. RNA can translocate through the nuclear membrane of the cell, co-locating with the cell’s DNA and therefore changing the cells functions. This can happen without the RNA being converted to DNA and without being integrated into the cell.


Alternatively RNA can undergo reverse transcription to DNA which can then translocate to the nuclear membrane of the cell. The main requirement is the presence of a reversed transcriptase enzyme within the cell. A number of viruses can infect the body and although the infections are controlled and the virus destroyed, it is likely that RNA reverse transcriptase remains within the cells – for some time.


The odds of this occurring are low. Consider the circumstances. (Old virus/ old infection- knocked out by immunity, small % of body cells affected- cells not dying or not killed by the immune system due to a “defunct” infection process: not introducing full virus genome into the cells). So, if for example if one in 1E7 cells contains a reversed transcriptase from a prior viral infection, there is likely to be a chance that one in 1E7 cells will pick up an infection from the CoVid virus itself or from the vaccine. The level of integration of DNA with typically telomeric chromosome ends is of the order of one in 1e5 to 1E7.

Kinkajou Kinkajou: Could this be carcinogenic?
Yes. But the absolute addition to the existing cancer risk is likely to be very low. Remember approximately 20% of people will die with cancer over their lives.

Erasmus Erasmus : Excerpt: “The failure of natural immunity to create substantial or long-term protection”.
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : I think the key issues here relate to the fact the virus essentially exists largely outside the body. Hence the immune system exposure of this virus is actually relatively low. The suppression of interferon also affects the development of community. Interference suppression is a typical virulence factor for CoVid infection.


Probably one of the major issues with which we must consider is that although we can measure B cell function we are very poor at measuring T cell function. And due to the nature of infection, it is likely the T cell immunity is the critical factor in controlling and recovering from infection.


Many of the comments we have made about infection not being protective against future infection, are largely meaningless in view of our lack of ability to stage the extent, development and severity of infection.

Erasmus Erasmus : Excerpt: “Social issues – seeing the effect of isolation on young adults who face career delays and delays in finding a partner in life.”

Mobility Social


Goo Numbat Goo: Human society requires free mobility of people to find a partner, develop relationships, find employment, receive education et cetera. Humans have short lives so I think that the impact of lockdowns is felt most intensely by the young adults in a society. Fortunately for us we have achieved sufficient technology to limit our need to physically attend many workspaces.


Things could have been a lot worse for so many.

 

Erasmus Erasmus : Excerpt: “Lack of consideration of Safety Issues. (I think the anti-vaxers do present some very good issues). There are also issues that have not reared their heads and which are a direct consequences of the decisions we have made. It is quite possible that we could de-populate the planet (the Western world and richer nations anyway), in about 20 years by the use of compulsory vaccination programs for which we have we have not anticipated very long term effects. (Censored).”

Vaccine Safety ?
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : We have really looked at some of the anti—vaxer arguments. As I have shown above the percentage cancer risk increase from vaccination is likely to be very small against a substantial background cancer risk of up to 20% over a lifetime.


One issue has not been much appreciated is the propensity of the mRNA vaccines to seize control of the immune system temporarily – in particular the Toll 2 receptor antigen processing allowing intrinsic viruses such as HZ V or I think little appreciated HHV-6 to proliferate. HZ V causes the shingles family of syndromes with single points of nerve damage appearing throughout the body – relatively susceptible to acyclovir and similar antivirals. I think HHV-6 is much more likely to lie behind fuzzy head feelings and myocardial effects would be very difficult to assess.


The key issues of course are early identification of a complication and appropriate institution of treatment. It is unlikely that most doctors will do anything of the sort unless they have been beaten around the head and forced to comply. Innovative thinking and innovative treatment are things that are frowned on in modern medicine.


I think one of the key “no deal” issues is (censored). Compulsory mass vaccination with an inadvertent unrealised complication with the vaccine could well result in the death of slabs of the human race in approximately 20 to 25 years. However, some of my colleagues in broaching this issue generally have found no one to listen.


Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : * There has been this similar contamination issue many years ago when “green monkey virus” was included in one of the rushed influenza vaccines. No harm ever came of being infected with this virus. However, you can’t get lucky all the time. I recall a line from Babylon 5 – spoken by a Vorlon: “so many mistakes, so many many mistakes”. Freedom to choose is freedom to make mistakes. We Need extreme care in mass programmes. Remember the green monkey virus problem. We’re too clever to make that mistake now- so instead we can do something else that’s even more stupid.


Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : Polio vaccines used in the late 1950s and early 1960s were contaminated with a virus called simian virus 40 (SV40) present in monkey kidney cells used to grow the vaccine. Subsequently, investigators found SV40 DNA in biopsy specimens obtained from patients with cancers such as mesothelioma (lung), osteosarcoma (bone) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (lymph nodes). However, several facts should be noted:
SV40 was present in cancers of people who either had or had not received the polio vaccines that were contaminated with SV40.
SV40 has not been present in any vaccine since 1963. 
People with cancers who were born after 1963, when SV40 was no longer a contaminant of the polio vaccine, were found to have evidence for SV40 in their cancerous cells. 
Epidemiologic studies do not show an increased risk of cancers in those who received polio vaccine between 1955 and 1963.


Taken together, these findings do not support the hypothesis that SV40 virus contained in polio vaccines administered before 1963 caused cancers. 


Goo Numbat Goo: Working out causation can indeed be complicated. That’s best not a task I would relegate to government.

Dr AXxxxx Dr AXxxxx : Yes . The answer is like to reflect whatever political interest group they support at the time or what other group they hate the most and can do the most damage to.

Kinkajou Kinkajou: This is one of the problems with the forced vaccination program. People who have no idea about potential consequences (usually government) -  making decisions considering only the issues obvious in front of their nose. It would be far better to accept some people not vaccinating and maintaining level of risk – then to discover that a community level significant error has been made. If the virus has some serious consequence taking 20 years to appear, it is likely that 80 to 90% of the population will suffer that complication in 20 years or so. This is almost “depopulation”. I particularly object to some stupid fool in government with no appreciation that they can be any downside to the decision they are making, enforcing their decision on others. Palashook or stupid chook – just doing what they’ve been told to do- by “make no waves’ beaurocrats.

Reverse Transcriptase
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : * Common Viruses with reverse transcriptase or retrotransposons:
e.g. hepatitis B, Retroviridae, Metaviridae, Pseudoviridae, Hepadnaviridae and Caulimoviridae.
+ (Metaviridae and Pseudoviridae
Reverse transcriptases (RTs) play a major role in the replication of Retroviridae, Metaviridae, Pseudoviridae, Hepadnaviridae and Caulimoviridae.

RTs are enzymes that are able to synthesize DNA using RNA or DNA as templates (DNA polymerase activity), and degrade RNA when forming RNA/DNA hybrids (ribonuclease H activity).

In retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons (Metaviridae and Pseudoviridae), the coordinated action of both enzymatic activities converts single-stranded RNA into a double-stranded DNA
Other reports: The discovery and properties of a unique class of RT-related cellular genes collectively named rvt. RVTs are not components of retrotransposons or viruses, but single-copy genes with a characteristic domain structure that may contain introns in evolutionarily conserved positions, occur in syntenic regions, and evolve under purifying selection. These genes can be found in all major taxonomic groups including protists, fungi, animals, plants, and even bacteria, although they exhibit patchy phylogenetic distribution in each kingdom.

Erasmus Erasmus : Reverse transcriptase and similarly acting stuff does exist in their world and the human population.

 

Erasmus Erasmus : Excerpt: Comments on “New tech: monoclonal antibody.”
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies That Have Received Emergency Use Authorizations from the Food and Drug Administration


Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : Four anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAb products have received Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Bamlanivimab plus etesevimab, casirivimab plus imdevimab (REGEN-COV), and sotrovimab received EUAs for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in non-hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization. However, the distribution of bamlanivimab plus etesevimab and casirivimab plus imdevimab has been paused because the products have reduced activities against the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of concern (VOC). Sotrovimab is expected to retain efficacy against the Omicron variant.5 The FDA has issued an EUA for tixagevimab plus cilgavimab (Evusheld), a long-acting anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAb combination.

The EUA allows this combination to be used as SARS-CoV-2 PrEP for individuals who do not have SARS-CoV-2 infection, who have not been recently exposed to an individual with SARS-CoV-2 infection, AND who are at risk for an inadequate immune response to COVID-19 vaccination OR have a documented history of severe adverse reaction to an available COVID-19 vaccine or any of its components 

Goo Numbat Goo: These meds are expensive. I can’t see the system (government or commercial), allowing widespread use under almost any circumstances.

Erasmus Erasmus : Excerpt: Comments on “surfactants,”

Surfactant

Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : Background
COVID-19 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and depletes the lungs of surfactant, leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation and death. The feasibility and safety of surfactant delivery in COVID-19 ARDS patients have not been established.


Methods
One study group performed retrospective analyses of data from patients receiving off-label use of exogenous natural surfactant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven COVID-19 PCR positive ARDS patients received liquid Curosurf (720 mg) in 150 ml normal saline, divided into five 30 ml aliquots) and delivered via a bronchoscope into second-generation bronchi. Patients were matched with 14 comparable subjects receiving supportive care for ARDS during the same time period. Feasibility and safety were examined as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality.


Results
Patients showed no evidence of acute decompensation following surfactant installation into minor bronchi. Cox regression showed a reduction of 28-days mortality within the surfactant group, though not significant. The surfactant did not increase the duration of ventilation, and health care providers did not convert to COVID-19 positive.


Conclusions
Dr Xxxxx Dr Xxxxx : Surfactant delivery through bronchoscopy at a dose of 720 mg in 150 ml normal saline is feasible and safe for COVID-19 ARDS patients and health care providers during the pandemic. Surfactant administration did not cause acute decompensation, may reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation duration in COVID-19 ARDS patients. This study supports the future performance of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of meticulous sub-bronchial lavage with surfactant as treatment for patients with COVID-19 ARDS.